Category Archives: Stories Of The Salaf

Al-Baraa Ibn Malik Al-Ansari

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Al-Baraa Ibn Malik Al-Ansari

Al-Baraa Ibn Malik Al-Ansari

His hair looked dishevelled and his whole appearance was unkept. He was thin with so little flesh on his bones that it was painful to look at him. Yet in single-handed combat he defeated and killed many opponents and in the thick of battle he was an outstanding fighter against the mushrikeen. 
He was so courageous and daring that Umar once wrote to his governors throughout the Islamic state that they should not appoint him to lead any army out of fear that he would have them all killed by his daring exploits. This man was al-Baraa ibn Malik al- Ansari, the brother of Anas ibn Malik, the personal aide of the Prophet.

If the tales of Baraa’s heroism were to be told in detail, pages and pages could be written. But let one example suffice.

This particular story begins only hours after the death of the noble Prophet when many Arabian tribes took to leaving the religion of God in large numbers, just as they had entered it in large numbers. Within a short space of time only the people of Makkah, Madinah and Taif and scattered communities here and there, whose commitment to Islam was unwavering, remained within the religion.

Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, the successor to the Prophet, stood firm against this blind and destructive movement. From the Muhajireen and Ansar, he mobilized eleven armies each under a separate commander and despatched them to various parts of the Arabian peninsula. Their purpose was to make the apostates return to the path of guidance and truth and to confront the leaders of the rebellion.

The strongest group of apostates and the greatest in number were the Banu Hanifah among whom Musaylamah the Imposter arose, claiming that he was a prophet. Musaylamah managed to mobilize forty thousand of the best fighters among his people. Most of these however followed him for the sake of tribal loyalty and not because they believed in him. One of them in fact said, “I testify that Musaylamah is an imposter and that Muhammad is true but the imposter of Rabi’ah (Musaylamah) is dearer to us than the true man of Mudar (Muhammad). ”

Musaylamah routed the first army sent against him under the leadership of Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl. Abu Bakr despatched another army against Musaylamah led by Khalid ibn al-Walid. This army included the cream of the Sahabah from both the Ansar and the Muhajireen. In the front ranks of this army was Baraa ibn Malik and a group of the most valiant Muslims.

The two armies met in the territory of the Banu Hanifah at Yamamah in Najd. Before long, the scale of battle tilted in favour of Musaylamah and his men. The Muslim armies began to retreat from their positions. Musaylamah’s forces even stormed the tent of Khalid ibn Walid and drove him from his position. They would have killed his wife if one of them had not granted her protection.

At that point, the Muslims realised in what a perilous situation they were. They were also conscious of the fact that if they were annihilated by Musaylamah, Islam would not be able to stand as a religion and Allah the One God with whom there is no partner would not be worshipped in the Arabian peninsula after that.
Khalid mustered his forces once more and began reorganising them. He separated the Muhajireen and the Ansar and kept men from different tribes apart. Each was put under the leadership of one of its own members so that the losses of each group in the battle might be known.

The battle raged. There was much destruction and death. The Muslims had not experienced anything like this in all the wars they had fought before. Musaylamah’s men remained firm amidst the tumult, as firm as immovable mountains although many of them had fallen.

The Muslims displayed tremendous feats of heroism. Thabit ibn Qays, the standard bearer of the Ansar, dug a pit and planted himself in it and fought until he was killed. The pit he dug turned out to be his grave. Zayd ibn al Khattab, brother of Umar ibn al-Khattab, may God be pleased with them both, called out to the Muslims: “Men, bite with your jaw teeth, strike the enemy and press on. 
By God, I shall not speak to you after this until either Musaylamah is defeated or I meet God.” He then charged against the enemy and continued fighting until he was killed. Salim, the mawla of Abu Hudhaifah, and standard bearer of the Muhajireen displayed unexpected valour. His people feared that he would show weakness or be too terrified to fight. To them he said, “If you manage to overtake me, what a miserable bearer of the Qur’an I shall be.” He then valiantly plunged into the enemy ranks and eventually fell as a martyr.

The bravery of all these, however, wanes in front of the heroism of al-Baraa ibn Malik, may God be pleased with him and with them all.

As the battle grew fiercer and fiercer, Khalid turned to al-Baraa and said, “Charge, young man of the Ansar.” AlBaraa turned to his men and said, “O Ansar, let not anyone of you think of returning to Madinah. There is no Madinah for you after this day. There is only Allah, then Paradise.”

He and the Ansar then launched their attack against the mushrikeen, breaking their ranks and dealing telling blows against them until eventually they began to withdraw. They sought refuge in a garden which later became known in history as The Garden of Death because of the many killed there on that day. The garden was surrounded by high walls. Musaylamah and thousands of his men entered and closed the gates behind them and fortified themselves.

From their new positions they began to rain down arrows on the Muslims.

The valiant Baraa went forward and addressed his company, “Put me on a shield. Raise the shield on spears and hurl me into the garden near the gate. Either I shall die a martyr or I shall open the gate for you.”

The thin and wiry al-Baraa was soon sitting on a shield. A number of spears raised the shield and he was thrown into the Garden of Death amongst the multitude of Musaylamah’s men. He descended on them like a thunderbolt and continued to fight them in front of the gate. Many fell to his sword and he himself sustained numerous wounds before he could open the gate.

The Muslims charged into the Garden of Death through the gates and over the walls. Fighting was bitter and at close quarters and hundreds were killed. Finally the Muslims came upon Musaylamah and he was killed.

Al Baraa was taken in a litter to Madinah. Khalid ibn al-Walid spent a month looking after him and tending his wounds. Eventually his condition improved. Through him the Muslims had gained victory over Musaylamah.
In spite of recovering from his wounds, al-Baraa continued to long for the martyrdom which had eluded him at the Garden of Death. He went on fighting in battle after battle hoping to attain his aim. This came at the battle for Tustar in Persia.

At Tustar the Persians were besieged in one of their defiant fortresses. The siege was long and when its effects became quite unbearable, they adopted a new tactic. From the walls of the fortress, they began to throw down iron chains at the ends of which were fastened iron hooks which were red hot. Muslims were caught by these hooks and were pulled up either dead or in the agony of death.

One of these hooks got hold of Anas ibn Malik, the brother of al-Baraa. As soon as al-Baraa saw this, he leapt up the wall of the fortress and grabbed the chain which bore his brother and began undoing the hook from his body. His hand began to burn but he did not let go before his brother was released.

Baraa himself died during this battle. He had prayed to God to grant him martyrdom.
Scanned from: “Companions of The Prophet”, Vol.1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid.

 

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Adiyy Ibn Hatim

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Adiyy Ibn Hatim

Adiyy Ibn Hatim
In the ninth year of the Hijrah, an Arab king made the first positive moves to Islam after years of feeling hatred for it. He drew closer to faith (iman) after opposing and combating it. And he finally pledged allegiance to the Prophet(S.A.W) after his adamant refusal to do so.

He was Adiyy, son of the famous Hatim at-Taai who was known far and wide for his chivalry and fabulous generosity. Adiyy inherited the domain of his father and was confirmed in the position by the Tayy people. Part of his strength lay in the fact that a quarter of any amount they obtained as booty from raiding expeditions had to be given to him.

When the Prophet(S.A.W) announced openly his call to guidance and truth and Arabs from one region after another accepted his teachings, Adiyy saw in his mission a threat to his position and leadership. Although he did not know the Prophet(S.A.W) personally, and had never seen him, he developed strong feelings of enmity towards him. He remained antagonistic to Islam for close upon twenty years until at last God opened his heart to the religion of truth and guidance.

The way in which Adiyy became a Muslim is a remarkable story and he is perhaps the best person to relate it. He said:

“There was no man among the Arabs who detested God’s Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace, more than I, when I heard about him. I was then a man of status and nobility. I was a Christian. From my people I took a fourth of their booty as was the practice of other Arab kings.

When I heard of the Messenger of God(S.A.W) I hated him. When his mission grew in strength and when his power increased and his armies and expeditionary forces dominated east and west of the land of Arabs, I said to a servant of mine who looked after my camels:

‘Get ready a fat camel for me which is easy to ride and tether it close to me. If you hear of an army or an expeditionary force of Muhammad coming towards this land, let me know.’ One evening, my servant came to me and said: “Yaa Mawlaya! What you intended to do on the approach of Muhammad’s cavalry to your land, do it now.” ‘Why? May your mother lose you!’

‘I have seen scouts searching close to the habitations. I asked about them and was told that they belonged to the army of Muhammad,’ he said.

‘Bring the camel which I ordered you to get ready.’ I said to him. I got up then and there, summoned my household (including) my children and ordered them to evacuate the land we loved. We headed in the direction of Syria to join people of our own faith among the Christians and settle among them.

We left in too much haste for me to gather together our entire household. When I took stock of our situation, I discovered that part of my family was missing. I had left my own sister in our Najd homelands together with the rest of the Tayy people. I did not have any means to return to her. So I went on with those who were with me until I reached Syria and took up residence there among people of my own religion. As for my sister, what I feared for her happened.
News reached me while I was in Syria that the forces of Muhammad entered our habitations and took my sister together with a number of other captives to Yathrib. There she was placed with other captives in a compound near the door of the Masjid.

The Prophet(S.A.W) passed by her. She stood up before him and said: ‘Yaa Rasulullah! My father is dead and my guardian is not here. Be gracious to me and God will be gracious to you!

‘And who is your guardian?’ asked the Prophet.

‘Adiyy ibn Hatim.’ she said.

‘The one who fled from God and His Prophet?’ he asked. He then left her and walked on.

On the following day, the same thing happened. She spoke to him just as she did the day before and he replied in the same manner. The next day, the same thing happened and she despaired of getting any concession from him for he did not say anything. Then a man from behind him indicated that she should stand up and talk to him. She therefore stood up and said:

‘O Messenger of God! My father is dead and my guardian is absent. Be gracious to me and God will be gracious to you.’ I have agreed he said. Turning to those about him, he instructed: likewise `Let her go for her father loved noble ways, and God loves them.’

‘I want to join my family in Syria,’ she said.

“But don’t leave in a hurry,” said the Prophet, “until you find someone you can trust from your people who could accompany you to Syria. If you find a trustworthy person, let me know.”

When the Prophet left, she asked about the man who had suggested that she speak to the Prophet and was told that he was Ali ibn Abi Talib, may God be pleased with him. She stayed in Yathrib until a group arrived among whom was someone she could trust. So she went to the Prophet and said:

‘O Messenger of God! A group of my people have come to me and among them is one I can trust who could take me to my family.’

The Prophet(S.A.W) gave her fine clothes and an adequate sum of money. He also gave her a camel and she left with the group.

Thereafter we followed her progress gradually and waited for her return. We could hardly believe what we heard about Muhammad’s generosity towards her in spite of my attitude to him. By God, I am a leader of my people. When I beheld a woman in her hawdaj coming towards us, I said: ‘The daughter of Hatim! It’s she! It’s she!’

When she stood before us, she snapped sharply at me and said: ‘The one who severs the tie of kinship is a wrongdoer. You took your family and your children and left the rest of your relations and those whom you ought to have protected.’

‘Yes, my sister,’ I said, ‘don’t say anything but good.’ I tried to pacify her until she was satisfied. She told me what had happened to her and it was as I had heard. Then I asked her, for she was an intelligent and judicious person:
“What do you think of the mission of this man (meaning Muhammad peace be on him)?” “I think, by God, that you should join him quickly.” she said. “If he is a Prophet, file one who hastens towards him would enjoy his grace. And if he is a king, you would not be disgraced in his sight while you are as you are.”

I immediately prepared myself for travel and set off to meet the Prophet in Madinah without any security and without any letter. I had heard that he had said: ‘I certainly wish that God will place the hand of Adiyy in nay hand.’

I went up to him. He was in the Masjid. I greeted him and he said: ‘Who is the man? ‘Adiyy ibn Hatim,’ I said. He stood up for me, took me by the hand and set off towards his home.

By God, as he was walking with me towards his house, a weak old woman met him. With her was a young child. She stopped him and began talking to him about a problem. I was standing (all the while). I said to myself: ‘By God, this is no king.’

He then took me by the hand and went with me until we reached his home. There he got a leather cushion

filled with palm fibre, gave it to me said: ‘Sit on this!’

I felt embarrassed before him and said: ‘Rather, you sit on it.’ ‘No, you,’ he said.

I deferred and sat on it. The Prophet(S.A.W) sat on the floor because there was no other cushion. said to myself:

‘By God, this is not the manner of a king!’ He then turned to me and said: ‘Yes, Adiyy ibn Hatim! Haven’t you been a “Rukusi” professing a religion between Christianity and Sabeanism?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied.

‘Did you not operate among your people on the principle of exacting from them a fourth, taking from them what your religion does not allow you?’

‘Yes,’ I said, and I knew from that he was a Prophet sent (by God). Then he said to me: ‘Perhaps, O Adiyy, the only thing that prevents you from entering this religion is what you see of the destitution of the Muslims and their poverty. 
By God, the time is near when wealth would flow among them until no one could be found to take it.

‘Perhaps, O Adiyy, the only thing that prevents you from entering this religion is what you see of the small number of Muslims and their numerous foe. By God, the time is near when you would hear of the woman setting out from Qadisiyyah on her camel until she reaches this house, not fearing anyone except Allah.

‘Perhaps what prevents you from entering this religion is that you only see that sovereignty and power rest in the hands of those who are not Muslims. By God, you will soon hear of the white palaces of the land of Babylon opening up for them and the treasures of Chosroes the son of Hormuz fall to their lot.’

‘The treasures of Chosroes the son of Hormuz?’ I asked (incredulously). ‘Yes, the treasures of Chosroes the son of Hormuz,’ he said. There upon, I professed the testimony of truth, and declared my acceptance of Islam.”
One report says that when Adiyy saw the simplicity of the Prophet’s life-style, he said to him: “I testify that you do not seek high office in this world nor corruption,” and he announced his acceptance of Islam. Some people observed the Prophet’s treatment of Adiyy and said to him:

“O Prophet of God! We have seen you do something which you have not done to any other.” “Yes,” replied the Prophet. “This is a man of stature among his people. If such a person come to you, treat him honorably.”

Adiyy ibn Hatim, may God be pleased with him, lived for a long time. He later said: “Two of the things (which the Prophet spoke of) came to pass and there remained a third. By God, it would certainly come to pass. “I have seen the woman leaving Qadisiyyah on her camel fearing nothing until she arrived at this house (of the Prophet in Madinah).

“I myself was in the vanguard of the cavalry which descended on the treasures of Chosroes and took them. And I swear by God that the third event will be realized.” Through the will of God, the third statement of the Prophet, on him be choicest blessings and peace, came to pass during the time of the devout and ascetic Khalifah, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz. Wealth flowed among the Muslims so much so that when the town-criers called on people throughout the Muslim domain to come and collect Zakat, no one was found in need to respond.
From Alim® Online

Abu-l Aas ibn ar-Rabiah

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Abu-l Aas ibn ar-Rabiah

Abu-l Aas belonged to the Abd ash-Shams clan of the Quraysh. He was in the prime of his youth, handsome and very impressive looking. He was the epitome of Arab chivalry and was endowed with all the characteristics of pride, manliness and generosity. He took great pride in the traditions of his ancestors.

Abu-l Aas inherited the Quraysh love for trade. The Quraysh of course were known to be masters of the two annual trading expeditions. the winter expedition to the south, to Yemen. and the summer expedition to the north. to Syria. These two expeditions are mentioned in the Quran in the chapter named after the Quraysh.

The caravans of Abu-l Aas always plied between Makkah and Syria. Each caravan was made up of two hundred men and a hundred camels. People would entrust their wealth and their goods to him to trade on their behalf because of his skill as a merchant. his honesty and his trustworthiness.

The maternal aunt of Abu-l Aas was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, the wife of Muhammad ibn Abdullah. She treated him like a mother would her own son, with love and affection. Muhammad too was extremely fond of him.

The years went by quickly in the household of Muhammad and Khadijah. Zaynab, their eldest daughter, soon grew up and blossomed forth like a lovely flower. She was much sought after in marriage by the sons of respectable Makkan nobles. And why not? She was one of the most distinguished Makkan girls in lineage and social standing. She was blessed with the most honorable father and mother. And she had the finest morals and behavior.

Which one of these men of Makkan nobility would win her hand? Abu-l Aas ibn Rabi’ah was the one who did.

Abu-l Aas and Zaynab were only married a few years when the Divine light of Islam radiated over Makkah. Muhammad, the father of Zaynab, was now the Prophet of God, sent to convey the religion of guidance and truth. He was commanded to convey the message of Islam first to his family and nearest relatives. The first women to believe in him and accept Islam were his wife Khadijah and his daughters Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah. Fatimah was very young at the time.

Zaynab’s husband however did not like leaving the religion of his forefathers and he refused to adopt the religion which his wife now followed although he was completely devoted to her and loved her dearly with a pure and sincere love.

Before long, the confrontation between the Prophet(S.A.W) and the Quraysh developed and grew bitter. The Quraysh felt that it was intolerable for their sons to remain married to Muhammad’s daughters. They also considered that it would be an embarrassing and difficult situation for Muhammad if his daughters were to be returned to his household. So they went to Abu-l Aas and said:

“Divorce your wife, Abu-l Aas, and send her back to her father’s house. We shall then marry you to any of the most charming and noble women of the Quraysh you desire.”

“No, by God,” said Abu-l Aas firmly. “I shall not divorce my wife and I do not wish to have in her place any woman in all the world.”

Muhammad’s other two daughters, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum were divorced by their husbands and returned to his home. The Prophet in fact was delighted when they came back to him and he had hoped that Abu-l Aas would also return Zaynab to him except that at that time he had no power to compel him to do so. The law forbidding the marriage of a Muslim woman to a non believing man was not yet in force.

The Prophet(S.A.W) migrated to Madinah and his mission became stronger. The Quraysh felt even more threatened by him, they went out to confront him at Badr. Abu-l Aas was compelled to go along with the Quraysh army. He did not really have the desire to fight the Muslims nor did he feel any inclination to join them. 
But his position among the Quraysh- one of honor and trust – impelled him to go along with their campaign against Muhammad. The battle of Badr ended in the terrible defeat for the Quraysh and the forces of shirk. Some were killed, some were taken prisoner and some managed to escape. Among those, who were taken prisoner was Abu-l Aas, the husband of Zaynab.

The Prophet fixed amounts for the ransom of the prisoners of war varying from one thousand to four thousand dirhams, according to the wealth and social standing of the prisoner. Quraysh messengers went to and fro between Makkah and Madinah bearing the ransom money to free their relatives held in Madinah.
 Zaynab sent her messenger to Madinah bearing the ransom demand to free her husband. The ransom amount included a necklace which her mother, Khadijah, had given to her before she died. When the Prophet saw the necklace, his face at once became covered with a veil of sadness and he felt a surge of tenderness for his daughter. He turned to his companions and said:

“Zaynab has sent this amount to ransom Abu-l Aas. If you see fit to set free her prisoner and return her possession to her, then do so.”

“Yes,” his companions agreed. “We shall do whatever we can to soothe your eyes and make you happy.”

The Prophet set one condition on Abu-l Aas before he freed him, that he should send his daughter Zaynab to him without delay.

As soon as he reached Makkah, Abu-l Aas began making arrangements to carry out his promise. He ordered his wife to prepare herself for the journey and told her that her father’s messengers were waiting for her just outside Makkah. He prepared provisions and a mount for her and instructed his brother, Amr ibn ar-Rabi’ah, to accompany her and hand her over personally to the Prophet’s emissaries.

 

Amr slung his bow over his shoulders, took up his quiver of arrows, placed Zaynab in her hawdaj and left Makkah with her in the broad light of day, in full view of the Quraysh.

The Quraysh were furious. They pursued Zaynab and Amr until they caught up with them. Zaynab was scared. Amr stood poised with his bow and arrow and shouted:

“By God, if any man come near to her, I would plunge this arrow in his neck”. Amr was known to be an excellent marksman.
Abu Sufyan ibn Hath, who had by this time joined the Quraysh group, went up to Amr and said: “Son of my brother, put away your arrow and let me talk to you.”

This Amr did and Abu Sufyan went on: “What you have done is not prudent. You left with Zaynab in full view of the people. All the Arabs know the disasters we suffered at Badr at the hands of her father, Muhammad. If you leave with his daughter in the open as you have done, the tribes would accuse us of cowardice and they would say that we have been humiliated. Return with her and ask her to stay in her husband’s house for a few days so that people could say that we brought her back. Thereafter you can take her away quietly and secretly from us and take her to her father. We have no need to detain her.”  
Amr agreed to this and Zaynab returned to Makkah. A few days later, in the middle of the night Amr took Zaynab and handed her over to the Prophet’s emissaries just as his brother had instructed.

After the departure of his wife, Abu-l Aas stayed on in Makkah for several years. Then, shortly before the conquest of Makkah, he left for Syria on a trading mission. On the return journey from Syria his caravan consisted of some one hundred camels and one hundred and seventy men.

As the caravan approached Madinah, a detachment of Muslims took them by surprise. They impounded the camels and took the men as captives to the Prophet. Abu-l Aas however managed to escape. During the night which was pitch black, Abu-l Aas entered Madinah fearful and alert. He searched around until he came to Zaynab’s house. He asked her for protection and she gave it to him.

At dawn, the Prophet(S.A.W) came out to the masjid to perform the Dawn Prayer. He stood erect in the mihrab and said “Allahu Akbar” to begin the Prayer. The Muslims behind him did the same. At that point Zaynab shouted from the women’s section of the masjid:

“O people! I am Zaynab the daughter of Muhammad. I have given protection to Abu-l Aas. Do give him your protection also.”

When the Prayer was finished, the Prophet turned to the congregation and said: “Have you heard what I heard?” “Yes, Messenger of Allah,” they replied.

“By Him in Whose hand is my soul, I knew nothing of this until I heard what you heard. He is asking protection from the Muslims.”

Back at home the Prophet said to his daughter: “Prepare a place of rest for Abu-l Aas and let him know that you are not lawful for him.” He then summoned the men of the expeditionary force which had taken the camels and the men of the caravan and said to them:

“You have taken the possessions of this man. If you are kind to him and return his property, we would be pleased. If however you do not agree then the goods is booty sanctioned by God which you have a right to.”

“We would certainly return his possessions to him, Messenger of God,” they replied and when Abu-l Aas came to collect his goods, they said to him:

“You belong to the Quraysh nobility. You are the nephew of the Messenger of God and his son-in-law. Would you accept Islam? We would hand over all this wealth to you. You would then have for your own enjoyment whatever wealth and possessions the Makkans entrusted to you, and stay with us here in Madinah.”
“What an evil thing you are asking me do, to enter a new religion while committing an act of treachery!” Abu-I Aas retorted.

Abu-l Aas returned to Makkah with the caravan and handed over all the wealth and goods to their rightful owners. Then he asked:

“O people of Quraysh! Is there any money left with me belonging to any one of you which he has not taken?”

“No,” came the reply. “And may God bless you with goodness. We have indeed found you noble and trustworthy.”

Then Abu-I Aas announced: “Since I have now handed over to you what is rightfully yours, I now declare that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. By God, the only thing that prevented me from declaring my acceptance of Islam while I was with Muhammad in Madinah was my fear that you would think that I did so only to appropriate your wealth. Now that I have discharged my trust in this matter, I now declare that I am a Muslim…”

Abu-l Aas then left for Madinah where the Prophet received him hospitably and returned his wife to him. The Prophet used to say about him: “He spoke to me and was truthful to me. He made promises to me and remained faithful to his word.”
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from companions of the prophet

Abu Ubaydah ibn Al-Jarrah

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Abu Ubaydah ibn Al-Jarrah

AHis appearance was striking. He was slim and tall. His face was bright and he had a sparse beard. It was pleasing to look at him and refreshing to meet him. He was extremely courteous and humble and quite shy. Yet in a tough situation he would become strikingly serious and alert, resembling the flashing blade of a sword in his severity and sharpness.

He was described as the “Amin” or Custodian of Muhammad’s community. His full name was Aamir ibn Abdullah ibn al-Jarrah. He was known as Abu Ubaydah. Of him Abdullah ibn Umar, one of the companions of the Prophet, said:

“Three persons in the tribe of Quraysh were most prominent, had the best character and were the most modest. If they spoke to you, they would not deceive you and if you spoke to them, they would not accuse you of Iying: Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, Uthman ibn Affan and Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah.”

Abu Ubaydah was one of the first persons to accept Islam. He became a Muslim one day after Abu Bakr. In fact, it was through Abu Bakr that he became a Muslim. Abu Bakr took him, Abdur Rahman ibn Auf, Uthman ibn Maz’un and al-Arqam ibn abi al Arqam to the Prophet(S.A.W), and together they declared their acceptance of the Truth.
 They were thus the first pillars on which the great edifice of Islam was built.

Abu Ubaydah lived through the harsh experience, which the Muslims went through in Makkah, from beginning to end. With the early Muslims, he endured the insults and the violence, the pain and the sorrow of that experience. In every trial and test he remained firm and constant in his belief in God and His prophet. One of the most harrowing experiences he had to go through, however, was at the battle of Badr.

Abu Ubaydah was in the vanguard of the Muslim forces, fighting with might and main and as someone who was not at all afraid of death. The Quraysh cavalry were extremely wary of him and avoided coming face to face with him. One man in particular, however, kept on pursuing Abu Ubaydah wherever he turned and Abu Ubaydah tried his best to keep out of his way and avoid an encounter with him.

The man plunged into the attack. Abu Ubaydah tried desperately to avoid him. Eventually the man succeeded in blocking Abu Ubaydah’s path and stood as a barrier between him and the Quraysh. They were now face to face with each other. Abu Ubaydah could not contain himself any longer. He struck one blow to the man’s head. The man fell to the ground and died instantly.

Do not try to guess who this man was. It was, as stated earlier, one of the most harrowing experiences that Abu Ubaydah had to go through, how harrowing, it is almost impossible to imagine. The man in fact was Abdullah ibn al-Jarrah, the father of Abu Ubaydah!

Abu Ubaydah obviously did not want to kill his father but in the actual battle between faith in God and polytheism, the choice open to him was profoundly disturbing but clear. In a way it could be said that he did not kill his father he only killed the polytheism in the person of his father.
It is concerning this event that God revealed the following verses of the Qur’an:

“You will not find a people believing in God and the Last Day making friends with those who oppose God and His messenger even if these were their fathers, their sons, their brothers or their clan. God has placed faith in their hearts and strengthened them with a spirit from Him. He will cause them to enter gardens beneath which streams flow that they may dwell therein. God is well pleased with them and they well pleased with Him. They are the party of God. Is not the party of God the successful ones?” (Surah al-Mujadilah 58:22)

The response of Abu Ubaydah at Badr when confronted by his father was not unexpected. He had attained a strength of faith in God, devotion to His religion and a level of concern for the ummah of Muhammad to which many aspired.

It is related by Muhammad ibn Ja’far, a Companion of the Prophet, that a Christian delegation came to the Prophet and said, “O Abu-l Qasim, send one of your companions with us, one in whom you are well pleased, to judge between us on some questions of property about which we disagree among ourselves. We have a high regard for you Muslim people.”

“Come back to me this evening,” replied the Prophet, “and I will send with you one who is strong and trustworthy.’;

Umar ibn al-Khattab heard the Prophet(S.A.W) saying this and later said:

“I went to the Zuhr (midday) Prayer early hoping to be the one who would fit the description of the Prophet. When the Prophet had finished the Prayer, he began looking to his right and his left and I raised myself so that he could see me. But he continued looking among us until he spotted Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah. He called him and said, ‘Go with them and judge among them with truth about that which they are in disagreement.” And so Abu Ubaydah got the appointment.”

Abu Ubaydah was not only trustworthy. He displayed a great deal of strength in the discharge of his trust. This strength was shown on several occasions.

One day the Prophet(S.A.W) despatched a group of his Sahabah to meet a Quraysh caravan. He appointed Abu Ubaydah as amir (leader) of the group and gave them a bag of dates and nothing else as provisions. Abu Ubaydah gave to each man under his command only one date every day. He would suck this date just as a child would suck at the breast of its mother. He would then drink some water and this would suffice him for the whole day.

On the day of Uhud when the Muslims were being routed, one of the mushrikeen started to shout, “Show me Muhammad, show me Muhammad.” Abu Ubaydah was one of a group of ten Muslims who had encircled the Prophet to protect him against the spears of the Mushrikeen.

When the battle was over, it was found that one of the Prophet’s molar teeth was broken, his forehead was bashed in and two discs from his shield had penetrated into his cheeks. Abu Bakr went forward with the intention of extracting these discs but Abu Ubaydah said, “Please leave that to me.”

Abu Ubaydah was afraid that he would cause the Prophet(S.A.W) pain if he took out the discs with his hand. He bit hard into one of the discs. It was extracted but one of his incisor teeth fell to the ground in the process. With his other incisor, he extracted the other disc but lost that tooth also. Abu Bakr remarked, “Abu Ubaydah is the best of men at breaking incisor teeth!”
Abu Ubaydah continued to be fully involved in all the momentous events during the Prophet’s lifetime. After the beloved Prophet(S.A.W) had passed away, the companions gathered to choose a successor at the Saqifah or meeting place of Banu Sa’aadah. The day is known in history as the Day of Saqifah. On this day, Umar ibn al-Khattab said to Abu Ubaydah, “Stretch forth your hand and I will swear allegiance to you for I heard the Prophet(S.A.W) say, ‘Every ummah has an amin (custodian) and you are the amin of this ummah.’ ”

“I would not,” declared Abu Ubaydah, “put myself forward in the presence of a man whom the Prophet(S.A.W) commanded to lead us in Prayer and who led us right until the Prophet’s death.” He then gave bay’ah (the oath of allegiance) to Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. He continued to be a close adviser to Abu Bakr and his strong supporter in the cause of truth and goodness. Then came the caliphate of Umar and Abu Ubaydah also gave him his support and obedience. He did not disobey him in any matter, except one.

The incident happened when Abu Ubaydah was in Syria leading the Muslim forces from one victory to another until the whole of Syria was under Muslim control. The River Euphrates lay to his right and Asia Minor to his left.

It was then that a plague hit the land of Syria, the like of which people had never experienced before. It devastated the population. Umar despatched a messenger to Abu Ubaydah with a letter saying:

“I am in urgent need of you. If my letter reaches you at night I strongly urge you to leave before dawn. If this letter reaches you during the day, I strongly urge you to leave before evening and hasten to me.

When Abu Ubaydah received Umar’s letter, he said, “I know why the Amir al-Mu’mineen needs me. He wants to secure the survival of someone who, however, is not eternal.” So he wrote to Umar:

“I know that you need me. But I am in an army of Muslims and I have no desire to save myself from what is afflicting them. I do not want to separate from them until God wills. So, when this letter reaches you, release me from your command and permit me to stay on.”

When Umar read this letter tears filled his eyes and those who were with him asked, “Has Abu Ubaydah died, O Amir al-Mu’mineen?”

“No,” said he, “But death is near to him.”

Umar’s intuition was not wrong. Before long, Abu Ubaydah became afflicted with the plague. As death hung over him, he spoke to his army:

“Let me give you some advice which will cause you to be on the path of goodness always.

“Establish Prayer. Fast the month of Ramadan. Give Sadaqah. Perform the Hajj and Umrah. Remain united and support one another. Be sincere to your commanders and do not conceal anything from them. Don’t let the world destroy you for even if man were to live a thousand years he would still end up with this fate that you see me in.”

“Peace be upon you and the mercy of God.”

Abu Ubaydah then turned to Muadh ibn Jabal and said, “O Muadh, perform the prayer with the people (be their leader).” At this, his pure soul departed.
Muadh got up and said: “O people, you are stricken by the death of a man. By God, I don’t know whether I have seen a man who had a more righteous heart, who was further from all evil and who was more sincere to people than he. Ask God to shower His mercy on him and God will be merciful to you.”

Continuation Abu Musa Al-Ashari 

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Continuation Abu Musa Al-Ashari 

Stories of the Salaf
Salam Alaykum warahmatullah, this is a continuation of last weeks story on Abu Musa, in order for us to know what happened during the adjudication that took place and complete the story of Abu Musa.
Adjudication nonetheless began with Abu Musa representing the side of ‘Ali and ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas representing the side of Muawiyah. A possible version of their historic conversation has been recorded in the book “Al-Akhbar at-Tiwal” by Abu Hanifah Ad-Daynawawi as follows: 
Abu Musa:
O Amr, what do you think of this suggestion in which there is the common good of the ummah and the pleasure of Allah?

Amr: What is it? 
Abu Musa:
Let us nominate ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar as Khalifah. He himself has not intervened at all in this war.

Amr: What do you think of Muawiyah for the position? 
Abu Musa:
It is neither opportune to have Muawiyah in this position nor does he deserve it.

Amr: Don’t you know that ‘Uthman was unjustly murdered? 
Abu Musa:
Certainly.

Amr: And that his status among the Quraysh you know (is one of honor), and that Muawiyah is the wali of the blood of Uthman…. And God says in the Quran: “Whoever is killed unjustly, We have given his heir authority….” (The full verse of the Quran is: {Nor take life which God has made sacred except for a just cause. And if anyone is slain wrongfully, We have given his heir authority (to demand Qisas or to forgive). But let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped by the Law} Surah 17, verse 33 .) In addition to this he is the brother of Umm Habibah, the wife of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and he is one of his companions. 
Abu Musa:
Fear God, O Amr.. Regarding what you have mentioned about the status of Muawiyah, if the position of the Khalifah is based on status, the person most deserving of it is “Abrahah ibn Sabbah”. He is a descendant of Yemeni kings whose domain extended to the east and the west. And what status has Muawiyah in comparison with ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib? Regarding your statement that Muawiyah is the wali of Uthman, the person who has the first right to this is his son, ‘Amr ibn Uthman. However, if you agree with me, we could revert to the memory of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and appoint his son ‘Abdullah, the pious one.

Amr: What prevents you from appointing my son ‘Abdullah he is virtuous, upright, one of those who were first to perform the Hijrah and who has been a long-standing companion of the Prophet. 
Abu Musa:
Your son is a man of honesty and truth. But you have plunged him deeply into these wars. Come let us appoint the Good One, the son of the Good One – ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar.

Amr: O Abu Musa! The only person who can set this matter aright is a man who has two wisdom teeth who eats with one and feeds with the other (referring to the political astuteness of Muawiyah). 
Abu Musa:
Woe to you, O ‘Amr. The Muslims are depending on us to solve this matter. They have fought with swords and spears. Let us not return them to a state of fitnah (trial).

Amr: What are you suggesting then? 
Abu Musa:
I suggest that we leave the two men-‘Ali and Muawiyah. Then we set up a shura (council) among Muslims to let them choose from among themselves whoever they like.

Amr: I agree to this suggestion for indeed the common good of the people rests in it. 
The above exchange shows Abu Musa to be a man of integrity and intelligence. He showed up the weakness of ‘Amr’s claims for Muawiyah to be the Caliph of the Muslims on the grounds of honor and status and on the grounds that he was the ‘heir’ to ‘Uthman. 
By his suggestion that the son of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab be appointed as Khalifah, Abu Musa showed that he was not prepared to stick uncompromisingly to the side he represented and that he was willing to consider an appropriate companion of the Prophet as an alternative, for the good of the Muslim community. 
‘Amr finally agreed on Abu Musa’s suggestion for a shura and for letting the Muslims decide freely whom they should have as Khalifah. It did not occur to Abu Musa that ‘Amr would not honor the agreement they had come to and that he would resort to deceit. 
Before the agreement was announced in public, Ibn’ Abbas warned Abu Musa saying,
“I fear, by God, that ‘Amr might deceive you. If you have both agreed on something, then let him announce it before you…”

Abu Musa, because of the gravity of the situation, felt that ‘Amr would honor the agreement. On the following day, before the assembled Muslims, Abu Musa and ‘Amr got together. Abu Musa is said to have invited ‘Amr to speak first but he declined saying, “I would not go before you for you are more honoured than I am, you performed the Hijrah before I did and you are older than I.” With this Abu Musa advanced and spoke: 

“O people! We have considered how best God would bring together the Ummah for their common good. It seems to us that the best solution in this regard is that the two men ‘Ali and Muawiyah should withdraw and that a shura should be formed so that people could choose for themselves who they want as the Khalifah. 
I have agreed that Ali and Muawiyah should withdraw. You now deal with the situation and appoint as you Khalifah whoever you want.”

It was now Amr’s turn to make the same announcement. He got up and addressed the people, “O People! Abu Musa has said what you have heard. He has abandoned his friend (‘Ali). Like him I abandon his friend (‘Ali) and I confirm my friend Muawiyah (as Khalifah) for he is the heir to the Amir al-Muminin, ‘Uthman, and the one most deserves his position.” 
Abu Musa was shocked by what he heard. He could not imagine that ‘Amr would commit such treachery even though he was warned about it. Filled with anger and disgust, he lambasted ‘Amr for his deceit and for ruining the chances of peace and reconciliation among Muslims. ‘Amr had thus turned the arbitration process into a farce. 
kabahgraphicAbu Musa continued to remain neutral in the conflict which was ended by ‘Ali when he made a treaty with Muawiyah confirming him as the one responsible for governing Syria and Egypt. 
Abu Musa himself left for Makkah and spent the rest of his life near the Sacred Mosque. During his life he had remained devoted to the noble Prophet and his righteous successors. During the life of the Prophet, the Prophet had appointed him and Mu’aadh ibn Jabal as governor of Kufah. 
Abu Musa was particularly attached to the Quran, reading it constantly, memorizing it, understanding it and putting it into practice. His advice regarding the Quran is full of wisdom,
“Follow the Quran,” he said, “and do not desire that the Quran should follow you.”

In ‘ibaadah (worship), he showed a great deal of strength and endurance. On days when the heat was intense and almost unbearable, Abu Musa would be found fasting and he would say,
“Perhaps the thirst of the midday heat would prove to be quenching for us on the day of Qiyamah.”

As his end drew near, the words which he kept saying were words which he has repeated throughout his life as a believer,
Allahumma antas-Salaam Wa minkas-Salaam

“O Lord, You are the Source of Peace And from You comes Peace…”

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Stories Of the salaf
Abu Musa Al-Ashari 
When he went to Basrah as governor of the city, he called the inhabitants to a meeting and addressed them: “The Amir al-Muminin, Umar, has sent me to you to teach you the Book of your Lord and the Sunnah of His Prophet(S.A.W) and to clean your streets for you.”

People were taken aback when they heard these words. They could easily understand that one of the responsibilities of a Muslim ruler was to instruct people in their religion. However, that one of his duties should be to clean streets was something new and surprising to them.
Who was this governor of whom the Prophet’s grandson, al-Hasan, may God be pleased with him said: “There was no rider who came to Basrah who was better for its people than he.”

His real name was Abdullah ibn Qays but he was and continues to be known as Abu Musa al-Ashari. He left his native land, the Yemen, for Makkah immediately after hearing that a Prophet had appeared there who was a man of rare insight, who called people to the worship of One God and who insisted on the highest standards of morality.

At Makkah, he stayed in the company of the Prophet(S.A.W) and gained knowledge and guidance. He returned to his country to propagate the word of God and spread the mission of the noble Prophet(S.A.W). We have no further news of him for more than a decade. Then just after the end of the Khaybar expedition he came to the Prophet(S.A.W) in Madinah. His arrival there coincided with that of Jaffar ibn Abi Talib and other Muslims from Abyssinia and the Prophet(S.A.W) welcomed them all with joy and happiness.
This time Abu Musa did not come alone. He came with more than fifty persons from the Yemen all of whom had accepted Islam. Among them were his two brothers, Abu Ruhm and Abu Burdah. The Prophet referred to the whole group as the “Asharis”. In fact he sometimes referred to all Yemenis as Asharis after Abu Musa al-Ashari. He often praised the group for their soft and tender-hearted nature and held them up to the rest of his companions as a high example of good behavior. He once said of them:

“If the Asharis go on an expedition or if they only have a little food among them, they would gather all they have on one cloth and divide it equally among themselves. They are thus from me and I am from them.”

Abu Musa soon became highly esteemed in the Muslim community. He had many great qualities. He was a faqih endowed with intelligence and sound judgement and was ranked as one of the leading judges in the early Muslim community. People used to say: “The judges in this ummah are four: Umar, Ali, Abu Musa and Zayd ibn Thabit.”

Abu Musa had a natural, uncomplicated disposition. He was by nature a trusting person and expected people to deal with him on the basis of trust and sincerity.

In the field of jihad, he was a warrior of great courage and endurance and skill. The Prophet said of him: “The master of horsemen is Abu Musa.”

“Abu Musa’s insight and the soundness of his judgment did not allow him to be deceived by an enemy in battle. In battle conditions he saw situations with complete clarity and executed his actions with a firm resolve.

Abu Musa was in command of the Muslim army traversing the lands of the Sasanian Empire. At Isfahan, the people came to him and offered to pay the jizyah (in return for military protection) to make peace and avoid fighting. However. they were not sincere in their offer and merely wanted an opportunity to mount a treacherous attack on the Muslims. Abu Musa however saw through their real intentions and he remained on the alert. Thus when the Isfahanis launched their attack, the Muslim leader was not caught off-guard, He engaged them in battle and before midday of the following day, he had won a decisive victory.

In the major campaigns against the powerful Sasanian Empire Abu Musa’s role was outstanding. In the great Battle of Tustar itself, he distinguished himself as a military commander.

The Persian commander, Hormuzan, had withdrawn his numerous forces to the strongly fortified city of Tustar. The Caliph Umar did not underestimate the strength of the enemy and he mobilized powerful and numerous force to confront Hormuzan. Among the Muslim forces were dedicated veterans like Ammar ibn Yasir, al-Baraa ibn Malik and his brother Anas, Majra’a al-Bakri and Salamah ibn Rajaa. Umar appointed Abu Musa as commander of the army.

So well fortified was Tustar that it was impossible to take it by storm. Several attempts were made to breach the walls but these proved unsuccessful. There followed a long and difficult siege which became even more testing and agonizing for the Muslims when, as we saw in the story of al-Baraa ibn Malik, the Persians began throwing down iron chains from the walls of the fortress at the ends of which were fastened red-hot iron hooks. Muslims were caught by these hooks and were pulled up either dead or in the agony of death.

Abu Musa realized that the increasingly unbearable impasse could only be broken by a resort to stratagem. Fortunately, at this time a Persian defected to the Muslim side and Abu Musa induced him to return behind the walls of the fortified city and use whatever artful means he could to open the city’s gates from within. With the Persian he sent a special force of hand-picked men. They succeeded well in their task, opened the gates and made way for Abu Musa’s army. Within hours the Persians were subdued.

In spite of the fact that Abu Musa was a strong and powerful warrior, he often left the battlefield transformed into a penitent, weeping person. At such times, he would read the Quran in a voice that profoundly stirred the souls of all who listened to him. Concerning his moving and melodious recitation of the Quran the Prophet(S.A.W) had said: “Abu Musa has indeed been given one of the flutes of the people of David.”
Also Umar(R.A) often summoned Abu Musa and asked him to recite from the Book of God, saying:

“Create in us a yearning for our Lord, O Abu Musa.” As a mark of his dedication to the Quran, Abu Musa was one of the few companions who had prepared a mushaf a written collection of the revelations.

 

Abu Musa only participated in fighting against the armies of Mushrikin, armies which tried to oppose the religion of God and extinguish the light of faith. When fighting broke out among Muslims, he fled from such conflict and never took any part in it. Such was his stand in the conflict that arose between Ali and Muawiyah. It is in relation to this conflict and in particular his role as an adjudicator that the name of Abu Musa al-Ashari is most widely known.

Briefly, Abu Musa’s position appeared to be that of a ‘neutral.’ He saw Muslims killing each other and felt that if the situation were to continue the very future of the Muslim ummah would be threatened. To start off with a clean slate. the Khalifah Ali should give up the position and Muawiyah should relinquish any claim to be Khalifah and the Muslims should be given a free choice to elect whoever they wanted as Khalifah.

It was of course true that Imam Ali held the position of Khalifah legitimately and that any unlawful revolt could only have as its object the challenging and overturning of the rule of law. However, developments had gone so far, the dispute had become so bloody and there seemed to be no end in sight except further bloodshed, that a new approach to a solution seemed the only hope of avoiding further bloodshed and continuous civil war.
When Imam Ali accepted the principle of arbitration, he wanted Abdullah ibn Abbas to represent him. But an influential section of his followers insisted on Abu Musa. Their reason for so doing was that Abu Musa had not taken part in the dispute from its beginning. Instead he had kept aloof from both parties when he despaired of bringing about an understanding and a reconciliation and putting an end to the fighting. Therefore, they felt, he was the most suitable person to be the arbitrator.

Imam Ali had no reason to doubt the devotion of Abu Musa to Islam and his truthfulness and sincerity. But he knew the shrewdness of the other side and their likely resort to ruses and treachery. He also knew that Abu Musa in spite of his understanding and his knowledge despised deceit and conspiracies and always wanted to deal with people on the basis of trust and honesty, not through cunning. Ali therefore feared that Abu Musa would be deceived by others and that arbitration would end up with the victory of guile over honesty and that the situation would end up being more perilous than it was.

Adjudication nonetheless began with Abu Musa representing the side of Ali and Amr ibn al-Aas representing the side of Muawiyah.

Zainab Bint Khuzaimah

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Zainab Bint Khuzaimah

The prophet(S.A.W) said that Allah had ordained that he could marry only those women deserving of Paradise. And Zainab(R.A) was a lady who was known as ‘The Mother of the poor and needy because she was the most generous among the ladies of the household.
She was born 13years before Muhammad(S.A.W) was chosen as the Messenger of Allah. When he declared himself as the chosen Prophet of Allah he caused a furor in Makkah. Even those who loved and respected him, those who called him ‘Truthful’ and ‘Trustworthy’ turned into enemies who wanted to kill him. But there were some who were fortunate enough to have the sense to answer his call immediately with the pledge of allegiance to Allah and to him. They called out that they believed and that he was truthful in his claim. 
Among the righteous band of people who first proclaimed his truthfulness was Zainab. She had been married to Abdullah bin Jahash(R.A). This highly respected companion attained martyrdom during the battle of Uhud. The widowed and orphaned children of the martyred companion found security with the other companions who married the widows and took the children under their protection. Thus Zainab after the death of her husband attained the enviable position of becoming a wife of the Prophet(S.A.W).
The husband of Hamnah Bint Jahash(R.A) was also martyred during the Battle of Uhud and she was also grief stricken. Seeing this the Prophet(S.A.W) said:

 ‘The place a husband held in his wife’s heart could not be taken by any other’.
Hamnah told him sighing deeply that it was the thought of the orphaned children that troubled her most and she asked him to pray that Allah should give her patience and strength. The Prophet’s prayers for her were accepted and she married the noble companion Talhah bin Abdullah(R.A). He was an Ideal husband and a loving father for the orphaned children of her 1st husband.
Zainab was in the same plight as Hamnah, but she did not appeal to any human being. she entrusted her affairs entirely to Allah and deceived herself to prayer and meditation. So when she recieved a proposal from the best man possible, the Prophet(S.A.W) she was overjoyed with the good fortune that Allah has bestowed upon her.
The Prophet(S.A.W) married her with a dowry of 400 Dirhams and an apartment was constructed for her near those of Aishah and Hafsah (R.A). Thus she joined the selected band of pure and virtuous ladies of the prophet’s household. Allah in the Noble Qur’an speaks of these ladies of his prophet’s household,
‘Allah wishes only to remove evil deed from you, O member of the family(of the Prophet), and to purify you with a thorough purification.’ (33:33)
And also 
‘O wives of the Prophet, You are not like any other women.’(33:32)
Zainab even before the advent of Islam was known as ‘Mother of the distressed and needy’. This was because she could not bear to see a person hungry or in dire need. She was eulogized in verse by some of the famous poets of the time.

Ibn Katheer wrote that she earned the title because of her deeds of charity and generosity.
Qalastani writes that she was known by this name even during pre-Islamic times.

This great quality of generosity became even more pronounced and intense when she converted to Islam, which has always strongly advocated giving in charity. 
The two ladies who were already part of the household- ‘Aishah and Hafsah(R.A) welcomed this new friend and tried their best to give her their sincere sympathetic companionship. They knew that the Prophet(S.A.W) married Zainab because she was deeply affected by the death of her 1st husband. Because of the kind behavior of these 2 noble ladies, her grief was lightened and she felt more at peace. Yet she lived barely 8months after her marriage to the Prophet(S.A.W). She was just 30 when she passed away. The Prophet led the funeral prayers and she sa buried in Jannatul Baqi’. Khadija(R.A) was the 1st wife to have passed away in the lifetime of Muhammad(S.A.W), and Zainab(R.A) was second. 
Allah will be pleased with them and they Him.